UNIT 11: ANCIENT ROME
1.- How did Rome become an Empire?
· Where was the city of Rome?
ON THE RIVER TIBER IN THE ITALIAN PENINSULA.
· Why is the Italian Peninsula a strategic location?
BECAUSE IT IS IN THE CENTRE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA
· What did this strategic location enabled the Romans to do?
TO EXTEND THEIR TERRITORIES ON THREE CONTINENTS: EUROPE, AFRICA AND ASIA.
· Put in order the following statements about the growth of the Roman Empire:
o 2.- Rome expanded across the Mediterranian.
o 3.- Roman territories stretched north to south from the British Isles to the Sahara Desert, and east to west from Mesopotamia to the Iberian Peninsula.
o 1.- Rome conquered all the territories on the Italian Peninsula.
· Analyse the map on page 125 and list the territories which the Roman Empire dominated.
· Analyse the map on page 125 and underline which of the following modern countries were part of the Roman Empire: The United Kingdom, France, Spain, Finland, Portugal, Italy, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon and Denmark.
· What happened to the people who tried to resist Roman rule?
THEY WERE MADE SLAVES.
· What aspects of its culture did Rome spread?
THEIR LANGUAGE, LATIN, THEIR LAWS AND THEIR WAY OF LIFE.
· How was the empire administrated?
IT WAS ADMINISTRATED INTO PROVINCES, WHICH HAD TO PAY TAXES TO ROME. EACH PROVINCE WAS CONTROLLED BY A GOVERNOR, APPOINTED BY THE EMPEROR.
2.- What were the Monarchy and the Republic?
The Monarchy (753.509 BC)
In the first centuries of its history, Rome was governed by a ____________. This king was ____________ by the most important ____________ in the city, the ____________.
This king was helped by the ____________, an assembly formed by ____________, who were the ____________ of the leading families.
In the 6th century BC, Rome was conquered by the ____________. However, the Romans fought against them and eventurally ____________ them. In 509 BC, a ____________ dethroned Lucius Tarquinus Superbus (Tarquin the Proud the last ____________ King.
The Republic (509-27BC)
· What is the form of government after the Roman monarchy?
· Name the three institutions of the Roman Republic:
THE COMITIAS, THE MAGISTRATUS AND THE SENATE.
· Write the correct institution:
o This institution gave instructions to magistrates. SENATE
o Assemblies where Roman citizens met to elect magistrates. COMITIAS
o This institution established the laws. SENATE
o Magistrates held political, military and sometimes religious power. MAGISTRATUS
o This institution directed foreign policy. SENATE
o The highest magistrates were two consuls who controlled the political life and the army. MAGISTRATUS
o The most important institution. SENATE
o Assemblies where Roman citizens met to vote for laws. COMITIAS
o Magistrates were elected for a year. MAGISTRATUS
Patricians and plebeians
Define the following concepts:
- The patricians WERE A MINORITY FORMED BY THE RICHEST AND MOST POWERFUL FAMILIES. THEY CLAIMED TO BE DESCENDANTS OF THE FOUNDERS OF ROME.
- The plebeians WERE ALL THE OTHER CITIZENS.
- The tribune of the plebeians WAS THE REPRESENTATIVE OF THE PLEBEIANS IN THE SENATE.
3.- How did the Republic evolve?
- What wars happened between 264BC – 146BC?
- Who fought in those wars?
ROME AND CARTHAGE.
- What was Cathage?
A NORTH AFRICAN POWER.
- How many wars were there between the Romans and the Carthaginians?
- How long did these wars lasted?
OVER A HUNDRED YEARS.
- What did Rome do after after its victory in these wars?
ROME EXTENDED ITS POWER AROUND THE MEDITERRANEAN.
The crisis of the Republic
- What was the Roman situation in the 1st century BC?
THE REPUBLIC WAS WEAKENED BY CORRUPTION AND INTERNAL CONFLICTS.
- What kind of power increased?
THE POWER OF MILITARY.
- What did militaries do to prevent disorder?
THE FORMED TRIUMVIRATES.
- What is a triunvirate?
ALLIANCES OF THREE MEN WHO SHARED POWER.
- Who was the first triumvirate formed by?
JULIUS CAESAR, CRASSUS AND POMPEY.
- What was the consecuence of the disagreement of the first triumvirate?
A CIVIL WAR BROKE OUT.
- Who won the war and proclaimed perpetual dictator?
- What happened in 44 BC?
JULIUS CAESAR WAS ASSASSINATED BY A GROUP OF SENATORS AND SUPPORTERS OF THE REPUBLIC.
- Who was the second triumvirate formed by?
MARK ANTHONY, LEPIDUS AND OCTAVIAN.
- Who finally took control after several wars?
4.- How was the Roman Empire created?
- Who was the first Roman emperor?
- What does “Augustus” mean?
"CHOSEN BY THE GODS"
- Name the funtions of the Roman emperor:
- . HE PRESIDED OVER THE SENATE.
- . HE WAS THE HEAD OF THE ARMY.
- .HE WAS THE HIGHEST RELIGIOUS LEADER.
- .HE DIRECTED FOREIGN POLICY.
- .HE DICTATED LAWS.
- HE DECIDED UPON TAXES..
- When did the Roman world reach its peak?
IN THE 1st AND 2nd CENTURIES AD.
- What famous emperors governed at that moment?
CLAUDIUS, VESPASIAN, TRAJAN AND MARCUS AURELIUS.
- Label the different parts of the sculpture of Octavian Augustus.
5.- Why did the Roman Empire decline?
The crisis of the 3rd century
- What happened at the beginning of the 3rd century?
THE ROMAN EMPIRE SUFFERED A CRISIS.
- Who revolted?
PEASANTS AND SOLDIERS.
- What happened to the cities?
THE CITIES WERE ATTACKED.
- What did the population do?
THE POPULATION SOUGHT REFUGE IN THE COUNTRY.
- Why did emperors diminished?
BECAUSE THEY WERE UNABLE TO SOLVE THESE PROBLEMS.
- Who invaded the north of the Roman empire?
- How did the Romans call these peoples? What does this word mean?
BARBARIANS. THIS WORD MEANS "FOREIGNERS" FOR THE ROMANS. WE USE IT TODAY TO SAY "RUDE".
- Who attacked from the east?
The recovery of the 4th century
- What happened when Diocletian came to power?
REFORMS WERE CARRIED OUT TO RESOLVE THE PROBLEMS IN THE EMPIRE.
- What did Constantine do to achieve unity?
THE EMPEROR CONSTANTINE TOLERATED CHIRSTIANITY.
- Where did Constantine moved the capital of the empire?
- Who entered Germanic territory in 375?
- Consequently, who fled into the Roman empire?
THE GERMANIC TRIBES.
- What was the Romans´ reaction?
THE ROMANS WERE UNABLE TO STOP THE INVASION OF THESE BARBARIANS.
- What happened after the emperor Theodosius´ death in 395? Why?
THE EMPIRE WAS DIVIDED INTO TWO, SO THAT IT COULD BE DEFENDED MORE EASILY.
- Where was the Western Roman Empire´s capital?
- Where was the Eastern Roman Empire´s capital?
- Did both empires had the same emperor and institutions?
NO, THEY DIDN´T. EACH EMPIRE HAD ITS OWN EMPEROR AND ITS OWN INSTITUTIONS.
The fall of the Roman Empire
- Could the Western emperors stop the Germanic tribes? What happened then?
THE WESTERN EMPEROS COULD NOT STOP THE GERMANIC TRIBES.
THE GERMANIC TRIBES FORMED THEIR OWN KINGDOMS.
- What happened in 476? What new period in History begins after that date?
IN 476, THE GERMANIC TRIBES DEPOSED THE LAST WESTERN ROMAN EMPEROR, BRINGING THE EMPIRE TO AN END.
AFTER 476, THE MIDDLE AGES START IN WESTERN EUROPE.
- How long did the Eastern Empire last?
FOR ANOTHER THOUSAND YEARS.
- What was the name given to the Eastern Empire?
Do activities 1a and 1b on page 129.